Soldier Boy
References and Further Reading

Writing Soldier Boy: Background article
Soldier Boy: Home Page
Soldier Boy: Chapter notes
Australian War Memorial
National Archives
Soldier Boy Teacher Notes

The ridges at Lone Pine, Gallipoli, Anzac Day 1995


  • Adam-Smith, Patsy, the ANZACS, Penguin, Melbourne, 1991 edition.
  • AIF War Diary, 21st Bn, September-December, 1915, AWM 4 microfilm roll 54.
  • Armstrong, Lt Donald, 21st Bn, letters 1915, AWM 1DRL/0057. Lt Armstrong was killed in France in October, 1917.
  • Barrett, John, Falling In, Australians and ‘Boy Conscription’ 1911-1915, Hale & Iremonger, Sydney, 1979.
  • Barnes, Sgt B., 21st Bn, B Coy, letter September 1915, AWM 2DRL/0004.
  • Bean, C.E.W., Anzac to Amiens, Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 1983. See pp 61 and 84 for boy sailors on HMAS Sydney and at the Gallipoli landing. Boys on Sydney were 16-17 years old, Jose qv.
  • Bean, C.E.W., Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-18, Vols I & II, The Story of ANZAC, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1938.
  • Bell, Pte Alexander, 1st Reinforcements 21st Bn, diary begins at Suez July, 1915, AWM 3DRL/1307. Alex Bell, 29, was killed in France in August, 1916.
  • Butler, Col A.G., Official History of the Australian Army Medical Services in the War of 1914-18. Vol I, AWM, Melbourne, 1938, see pp 249, 364, 376 on Gallipoli’s ‘disease debacle’. Ibid, Vol III, AWM, Melbourne, 1943, see pp 371 and 493 for use of morphia.
  • Currie, Cpl Albert and Pte Will, private letters 1915-1916, describing the voyage from Australia to Egypt. The Tocumwal brothers were both killed during the war.
  • Embarkation Rolls, 21st Bn, 1st and 2nd Reinforcements, AWM 8 fiche 1077-1082.
  • Gammage, Bill, The Broken Years, Penguin, Melbourne, 1975.
  • Garvey, Stella, Stella, in Yesterday’s Daughters, Alma Bushell (ed), Nelson, Melbourne, 1986. Cec Hogan’s sister tells of growing up at Greta and Benalla, Cec going to war and his homecoming.
  • Goodman, Rupert, Hospital Ships, Boolarong Publications, Brisbane, 1992.
  • Hine, Pte William Lionel, 21st Bn, A Coy, diary on arrival at Anzac quoted in Smith qv. Bill Hine, who rose to the rank of sergeant, died of wounds in France in August, 1916.
  • Hogan, C.J., private letter to his sister, Kath, from Gallipoli, October 17th, 1915. See also Martin collection for condolence letter.
  • Jose, Arthur W., Official History, Vol IX The Royal Australian Navy, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1937, see pp 186-7 for training ship boys in the Sydney-Emden fight.
  • Laffin, John, Gallipoli, Kangaroo Press, Sydney, 1999.
  • Martin, Pte James, private letter and letters in the AWM Collections, AWM PR 83/061 and PR 85/339, including the condolence letters from Cec Hogan and Matron Riddoch.
  • McWilliam, Gwen, A School for Hawthorn, Glenferrie Primary School 1508, Melbourne, 1975.
  • MacNeil, Capt A.R. MC (ed), The Story of the Twenty-First, 21st Bn Association, Melbourne 1920, reprinted 1971.
  • Maxfield, Capt Gordon Loris MC, 21st Bn, letters 1915, AWM 1DRL/0489. Captain Maxfield was killed in France in May, 1917.
  • Odgers, George, The Royal Australian Navy, An Illustrated History,  Child & Henry Australia, Brookvale, 1982, see p 41 for cadet midshipmen beginning naval training at 13-14 years.
  • Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Victoria and NSW.
  • Robertson, John, Anzac and Empire, Hamlyn Australia, Melbourne, 1990.
  • Sands NSW Directory, 1900-1914.
  • Sands & McDougall’s Directories for Victoria, 1909-1930.
  • Scott, Ernest, Official History, Vol XI Australia During The War, Angus & Robertson, 1938, see p 439 on lowering recruitment standards during the war.
  • Smith, N.C., The Red and Black Diamond, The History of the 21st Battalion 1915-1918, Mostly Unsung Military History, Gardenvale, 1997.
  • The Australian Encyclopedia, Grolier, Sydney, 1981.
  • The Argus, Melbourne, August-September, 1914, March-November, 1915.
  • The Herald, Melbourne, March-December 1915, November 20th, 1933.
  • The School Paper, Education Department Victoria, monthly editions for Grades VII & VIII, 1913, 1914, 1915.
  • Wellington, Capt N.F. MC, 21st Bn, Report on the torpedoing of SS ‘Southland’, AWM  3DRL/3509.
  • Williams, Cpl Ivor, 21st Bn, diary May-December, 1915, AWM PR 91/113. Ivor Williams kept a very detailed and descriptive diary of his war experience. He returned to Australia in 1918, served in the Second World War, and died in 1975.